A study of 596 participants, analyzed using HyperRESEARCH was the basis for the paper entitled "College Knowledge of 9th and 11th Grade Students: Variation by School and State Context" by Angela D. Bell, Heather T. Rowan-Kenyon, and Laura W. Perna.
The authors note in their abstract that "Drawing on a multi-level model of college enrollment (Perna, 2006a), this study examines the knowledge that 9th and 11th grade students have about college and financial aid within the context of different types of school settings and different higher education and state college-going policy environments. Data for the study are drawn from multiple descriptive case studies of 15 high schools, 3 in each of 5 states." Among a number of concluding observations, the authors state "Although some programs provide college-related information to 9th and 10th grade students, particularly in the area of career exploration, school programs related to college still tend to focus on 11th and 12th grade students. These findings are particularly problematic, given that early information about college, college prices, and financial aid could provide the impetus for students to engage in other college-preparatory behaviors." The article appears in The Journal of Higher Education, Volume 80, Number 6, November/December 2009, pp. 663-685 and can be accessed online here.